What is a smart city? Every region of the world is experiencing rapid urbanisation. Right now, more than 50 % of the world’s population lives in urban areas. By 2040, that number will grow to nearly 75 %. That’s more than 6.5 billion people.
Some areas will experience more intense urbanisation than others, with India for example, doubling its urban population by the end of 2030.
For Big Cities, Innovation Is Fundamental
For big cities to achieve sustainable growth, innovation is fundamental. Unfortunately, accelerated urbanisation does not come without challenges for the mega cities. Resources are stretched, planning is hampered by economic realities, ageing infrastructures, low employment rates and constantly increasing transportation demands, require everyone’s attention.
Despite these challenges, rapid urbanisation will continue and along with it, the expansion of a “network of interconnected systems”.
Still, what is a smart city? By 2020, more than 60 billion smart sensors will be connected to the internet as part of a gigantic IoE (Internet of Everything) network; the foundation of a smart city, the fabric of a connected world, the engine of a smart city that communicates with autonomous cars, homes, connected objects and with people.
Unified protocols in V2I (Vehicles to Infrastructure), M2M (Machine to Machine), M2P (Machine to People) P2P (People to People) and smart, embedded sensors joined in an enthralling network, a generator of hyper data sets, the almighty IoE.
Fashion Tech Is The Missing Link
Fashion Tech will play a major role in IoE by bridging the gap between V2I (Vehicles to Infrastructure) and IoT (Internet of Things). At its full maturity, the fashion tech will finally complete the “digital persona.”
A “digital persona”, created by all interconnected devices that surround us, able to talk to each other, in a unified IoE (internet of everything), mixed, spiced up with Social Media, resulting in a “360-degree view of a person’s movements and data. ESTA for example, (Electronic System for Travel Authorisation) has been creating and heavily relying on the “digital persona” for the last 6 years.
Kreditech is another example. This German company offers loans to individuals based on their credit worthiness which is analysed using their online data (digital persona) instead of using traditional credit rating information in a process called Dynamic Social Scoring.
Say goodbye to passwords. Your “digital persona” will know you better than you know yourself. Identity theft will become a thing of the past, anything unusual or suspicious, out of your biometrics or patterns will be automatically dealt with. See the paramedics outside your door and don’t know why? Your digital persona already alerted the hospital, preventing a stroke.
Data, More Data, Big Data
As sensors spread across almost every industry, all above mentioned technologies will trigger a massive influx of data. The IoE will massively increase the amount of data available for analysis by all manner of organisations:
For example, back in 2012, Dr Soong Moon Kang from UCL Management Science and Innovation together with his colleagues from UCL CASA decided to monitor and analyse the traffic of London metropolitan transport system. Approximately 11 million bulk records reflecting the daily commutes of 4 million underground users.
The information was collected through the Oyster Card, the smart card electronic payment system for London transport. They found that London has many “polycenters” – a network arrangement that has implications for, how public transport is designed and used. See the video above for a more info.
Data Is The New Oil
Find it, extract it, refine it, distribute and monetise it. Big data is a broad term for data sets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate. “large”….How large? Cisco’s estimate of the amount of data generated by Internet of Everything (IoE) devices – which encompasses people-to-people (P2P), machine-to-people (M2P) and machine-to-machine (M2M) connections – to 403 ZB (zettabytes) by 2018.
How much is that? Well…1 ZB = 10007bytes = 1021bytes = 1000000000000000000000bytes = 1000exabytes = 1billion terabytes = 1trillion gigabytes.
We are going to have data spewing at us from all directions: from appliances, from machinery, from train tracks, from shipping containers, from power stations. If that doesn’t get you thinking how to handle real-time data feeds, nothing will…
Who Needs Data And What For?
Big data will radically change the way the we analyse data, with significantly improved results. From medicine to finance, from insurance to healthcare, from advertising to politics, such analytics will be fuel for innovations but let’s look at a few examples of how data builds the “digital persona” and what data does for us, in a “smart city” context, across the world:
Zaragoza, Spain: Municipality offers a “smart citizen card” to individuals registered as residents. More than 180,000 smart cards issued by Zaragoza City Council make possible micro-payments for services like: buses, street cars, the public bike system, taxis, sport centers, libraries, museums, cinemas, theatres, municipal Wi-Fi access, public parking zones.
These smart cards are feeding “the city” with large data sets relating to its usage: how many times they’ve been used, in what neighbourhood, what service – general transport, bicycle, taxi, libraries – the user type (individual or company) the user age, gender and even….
Houston, US: Centre Point Energy in Houston created a “mind-reading” call centre application. It identifies callers by their call ID, then runs a predictive algorithm using two years of customers history to choose among 40 different reasons the customer could be calling, all in less than a second. It then directs them to the most appropriate service and provides all the information the operators need to handle the call. Results? Customers get better, faster service at a lower cost to the company.
Porto, Portugal: Veniam (a tech startup) is deploying a new mobile Wi-Fi hotspots, all over the city of Porto. More than 600 city buses and taxis have been equipped with Wi-Fi transmitters, creating the largest free Wi-Fi hotspot in the world. Veniam sells the routers and service to the city, which in turn provides the Wi-Fi free to citizens, like a public utility.
In exchange, the city gets an enormous amount of data that can be used to offset the cost of the Wi-Fi in other areas. For example, in Porto, sensors tell the city’s waste management department when dumpsters are full, so they don’t waste time, man-hours, or fuel emptying containers that are only partly full.
Los Angeles, US: Los Angeles uses data from magnetic road sensors and traffic cameras to control traffic lights and thus the flow (or congestion) of traffic around the city. The computerised system controls 4,500 traffic signals around the city and has reduced traffic congestion by an estimated 16 percent.
IoT is the third big technology ‘wave’ in the last 50 years and the biggest. It will deliver a new era of prosperity and great advantages to smart cities: Municipalities improve their image, promote their services better and can access a wealth of new information. The traceability and feedback on the use of the services can foster better decisions and better public policies.
IoT – The Key To A Smart City
IoT technologies – the key component in any city’s effort to become “smart”. The number of smart cities across the world is set to quadruple between 2015 and 2025, with many new city developments. India, for example, is planning to spend $1.13 billion on 100 of them. Cisco believes the global “Smart City” market is already worth $3 trillion, with nearly $8 billion coming from India until 2020.
While India is expected to drive future growth, the current leaders are Europe, Singapore, and Korea, with a greater level of activity expected from countries like Brazil and China. The “Smart City” market is therefore set to explode, with Frost & Sullivan projecting a $1.5 Trillion global market by 2020, across several different segments.
Data explosion will improve our cities. Better efficiency of police and fire services by capturing and correlating all the data coming from different systems installed in the city, including surveillance cameras, emergency vehicle GPS tracking, fire and smoke sensors will become a norm of a smart city.
A smart city is going to predict protests, concerts, accidents by listening on social media networks and thus facilitate the management of potential traffic jams by smartly redirecting the traffic.
A smart city is smart through its senses. A smart city “can see, can smell, can hear”. Can “see” if a parking spot is taken or not. Can hear/identify a gunshot and instantly send an “Audio-Video-GPS” report to the closest police unit. Can “smell” air-quality and notify approaching connected vehicles of potentially dangerous situations. A smart city’s senses are obtained through smart sensors.
Smart sensors are everywhere. We attach them to our wrists, embed them into our medical devices, place them in car parks, playgrounds, even mount them onto the lampposts. Most sensors go unnoticed, their insides packed with unknowable electronic components, ceaselessly monitoring, counting, measuring, and transmitting.
Invisible by default, housed in anonymous plastic or metal boxes, these sensors rarely give away even a hint as to their purpose, intention, or ownership. Only sometimes adorned with a manufacturer’s label or an owner’s logo, there is seldom any information to explain what these barnacles of our urban landscape are or what they are doing. For all their ubiquity, the aesthetic of these smart sensors is unconsidered, their function and provenance is entirely inscrutable.
While it’s easy to recognise a CCTV camera, it is impossible to know the fate of the recorded data. Perhaps it’s streaming live video to a far-off police control room, being scanned in real time for flagged licence plate numbers. Or it may be recording footage that will later be viewed by a private security contractor working the night shift.
Some may have never been seen by a human, instead archived to a remote server under an entirely different jurisdiction – and kept for 24 hours, for 5 years or indefinitely. Even if unexamined today, it could be scanned with facial recognition algorithms or mined for patterns, years and years later.
Sensors are inherently of their context: the physical context they sense and the human one they often infer, but also of the corporations that manufacture them and the organisations that install them and base decisions on the supposedly, objective data that they create but hey…this is another subject, for another article, on another lazy weekend. Happy to meet, sorry to part, happy to meet again next week.
Oh, before I go, I’d like to recommend you two books: “The Third Wave” (1980) and “Powershift: Knowledge, Wealth and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century” (1990) both by Alvin Toffler. Data is knowledge and the knowledge is the power. Read them, you’ll understand why.